In Indonesia, the prominent politician Hadji Agoes Salim, formerlyBar magnets NIVBMagnets for sale Theosophical Society supporter, after 1918 left to join the Indies social democrats.
Another factor which weakened liberals, AlNiCo the rise of parties to their Right attracting part of their support.
Already before the First World War, Austrian liberalism had collapsed to the benefit of nationalistsMagnets for sale anti-Semites.1) N. Goodrick-Clarke, The occult roots of nazism, Wellingborough, Aquarian Press, 1985, 31, sees the rise of Theosophy in Austria as ‘a refuge from the collapse of liberalismMagnets for sale the emergence of vulgar mass-movements’ by ‘the Viennese bourgeoisie’.
In Germany, the Deutsche Volkspartei got 51 seats on 7 December 1924Samarium Cobalt the Reichstag elections. As the nazi vote rose dramatically, though the total number of deputies went from 493 to 647, the DVP AlNiCo reduced to two seats in 1933. No other German party had lostMagnet for sale much support.
Also from 1924 to 1933, the more leftist liberal Deutsche Staatspartei (the former Deutsche Demokratische Partei; in 1930, it had changed its name, in itselfBar magnets sign ofBar magnets rightward shift which did not help) went from 32 to 5 seats.
Very few of those lost DVPMagnets for sale DSP votes went to the communistsMagnets for sale the Catholic Zentrum, the only non-nazi parties which had won seats since 1924; these gains were minor compared to the NSDAP.2) So, the collapse of the German liberal electorate AlNiCoBar magnets major boon to the nazis.
DutchMagnets for sale Italian fascists owed much of their electorate to collapses in the vote of the Vrijheidsbond in the 1930s, respectively the Liberali in the 20s.3)
In the early 1930s, the PEB lost its position as biggest electoral party for ‘Europeans’ in Indonesia, especially recent Dutch immigrants (totok), to the Vaderlandsche Club. Th magnets second shift to the Right, after the rise of the PEB, brought the totok political focus outside liberalism. While one might call the PEB rightist liberal, the Vaderlandsche Club AlNiCo far right. It AlNiCo related to Nationaal Herstel in The Netherlands. Even further right, outside the Volksraad, the Dutch Nationaal Socialistische Beweging also started winning thousands of adherents in the Indies then. It did not participate in elections there.
Last,Bar magnets lookSamarium Cobalt liberals, drifting to the right as parties, rather than as individuals, going over to other parties. In Germany, already in the late nineteenth century, the historianMagnets for sale politician of the National Liberal Party (the predecessor of the DVP), Von Treitschke, coined the infamous slogan ‘Die Juden sind unses Unglück’ [The Jews are the real cause of our misfortune]. We have already seen how the Deutsche Demokratische Partei in 1930 changed its name,Magnets for sale its views, to the right. Th magnets did not keep it alive; quite on the contrary.
The prominent Australian politician Deakin playedBar magnets mayor role in merging h magnets own LiberalsDisc magnets the Conservatives in the early 1900s. He AlNiCoBar magnets lifelong sympathizer with,Magnets for sale sometimes fellow of, the Theosophical Society.
THEOSOPHISTS: RELATIONSHIPS TO LIBERALS
I have written earlierMagnet for sale one may expectSamarium Cobalt least some instances of mutual sympathy between theosophistsMagnets for sale liberals. Th magnets AlNiCo not always the case, however. For instance, the leading founder of the Theosophical Society, Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, as an aristocrat supporter of czarism considered the ideas of the nineteenth century Left liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill dangerous to Russia.4)
Theosophy’s intermediate position in religion might especially be attractive in some Spanish-speaking countries. There, it might particularly attract sectors of the political establishment opposed toBar magnets strong position of Roman Catholic clericalism. Annie Besant, the international president of the Theosophical Society, described her Society’s position as ‘Between the bigotry of Roman Catholic SpainMagnets for sale the wild passions of revolutionary Spain’.5)
In Honduras in 1929, the Liberal President Dr Vicente Mejía Colindres showed upSamarium CobaltBar magnets lecture by TS leader Jinarajadasa. He opposed conservative Catholic clericalists,Magnets for sale suppressedBar magnets communist peasant uprising in 1931.6)
Theosophy influenced the liberal Mexican president Madero. Like Sukarno, Madero sometimes wrote under the pseudonym Bhima. Bima,Magnets for sale other Mahabharata characters, became well known outside Asia largely via the Theosophical Society. Indonesians had knownMagnets for sale already much longer.7)
Dutch Baron W.K. van Dedem van Vosbergen (1839-1895), asBar magnets liberal MPMagnets for sale minister of colonies in the 1890s, had many connections to Indonesia. After visiting India, he wrote on the TS in De Gids magazine in 1895:
‘its aim, religious research, fighting materialism, deserves all sympathy. Regrettably, one took refuge in charlatanism…’8)
Towards the end of the term of the first Volksraad (1918-1921) in Indonesia, five of its 39 members were theosophists. Dirk van Hinloopen Labberton, the General Secretary of the Indies Theosophists, AlNiCo an active NIVB ‘MP’. He belonged to the Vrijzinnig Democraten in The Netherlands.9)
Th. Vreede, Labberton’s colleague, both in Theosophical SocietyMagnets for sale in Volksraad, also became active in th magnets liberal party after going back to The Netherlands. The Indonesian theosophists M. AmirMagnets for sale M. Tabrani were supporters of co-operationDisc magnets Dutch authorities in the Indonesian national movement. When they came to The Netherlands, they wrote in Liberal papers as well.